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Tools were essential from the very beginning to rummage in the soil and extract nourishing roots or the nodules of raw stone which were to be dressed.Hammers and anvils were necessary to break them up, according to techniques which underwent great changes down the ages, from crude percussion on a lump of bare stone, stone against stone, then wood against stone, to the fabrication of a bifacial or core tool intended to produce longer and finer flakes and later long narrow blades by procedures which are still obscure, although they undoubtedly included the use of a wooden wedge. Held in the hand or hafted, they were intended for striking with the cutting edge, like an axe, or with the point, like a halberd; later, preference was given to lighter types which were used as daggers or as heads for lances, javelins and arrows.(Perhaps accounting for the location of the Venus of Berekhat Ram [Golan] and the Venus of Tan-Tan [Morocco]).The door did not open again until much later to permit new migrations to the West.Human figures dressed up in animal or grotesque masks evoke the dancing and initiation ceremonies of living peoples or represent the sorcerers or gods of the Upper Paleolithic.A wonderful example is the sacrificial/ritualistic scene depicted in the famous Addaura Cave engravings (11,000 BCE).
In spite of the notable variations in tool-cultures, we can see that they are related; even if the combinations are comparatively varied, the constituent elements reappear, and in approximately the same order of succession.
On the other hand, at various times primitive man had to overcome difficult obstacles of which we have only the remotest idea.
The Caspian extended much further northward as a vast inland sea, and when the great Scandinavian and Russian glaciers advanced, the gateway to the East between western Europe and central Asia was closed, and the Paleolithic peoples could only penetrate from Asia Minor and Africa into Europe by the south-eastern and southern routes.
Upper Paleolithic man was capable of penetrating right to the end of what were literally subterranean labyrinths, with lights which could be relit in case of accidental extinction.
This presupposes a bold people, for in all countries the unsophisticated are terrified of the smallest dark caves.Please note in passing that recent discoveries - the Blombos cave engravings (c.70,000 BCE) and the more delicate Diepkloof eggshell engravings (c.60,000 BCE) - prove that these modern men had already developed an understanding of and use for art.